The drought in the Horn of Africa and the protracted conflict has created a humanitarian emergency that has led to a declaration of famine in several regions of Somalia and the Somali region of Ethiopia. As a result of depleted water resources, widespread internal displacement, malnutrition, and inadequate water and sanitation facilities, cholera outbreaks have occurred.
In Somalia, Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit (FSNAU) – a multi-donor project managed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) and FEWS NET are working together to ensure that livelihood products, tools, and skills meet FSNAU’s and FEWS NET’s decision support needs. This report offers an overview of the Household Economy Analysis methodology and a brief account of its history in the FSNAU, and then a summary analysis of the essential information from the baseline profiles taken together. This is followed by a series of livelihood profiles for each of the eighteen livelihood zones identified in Somalia.
This plan aims to reinforce community resilience to food insecurity by strengthening the following areas: access to and availability of food; household food security and nutrition and livelihoods; community-based disaster risk reduction; access to safe water and hygiene, and health awareness.
The plan will unite and support the efforts of partners and contribute to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 2, to end hunger and achieve food security, as well as priority actions of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
Agriculture and livestock are amongst the most climate sensitive economic sectors in the developing countries whilst the rural poor communities are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Climate change is real and is happening now. Current knowledge on the relationship between climate change effects and animal health is lacking particularly in East Africa despite of livestock agriculture being economically important in the region. Many related studies in the region have reported on the impacts of climate change on human health compared to animal health. This deficiency has created a knowledge gap which affects livestock management authorities and several development projects.This review paper describes the current knowledge in regards to potential impact of climate change and livestock infectious diseases in East Africa region.
A number of research reports and scholarly articles on climate change, animal diseases epidemiology were reviewed over a period of two months.
Sand and dust storms are a global environmental problem that affects the health and livelihoods of millions of people across the world. These storms, which have increased in frequency, intensity and geographical range in recent decades, have an immense impact on the global economy, forcing airports and schools to close, interrupting supply chains, destroying crops and overwhelming hospitals. Fine particles of dust can travel thousands of miles on the back of these storms, which may also carry pathogen sand harmful substances, causing acute and chronic respiratory problems.
Dust storms also increase desertification,drought and soil salinity while reducing water supplies and impeding renewable energy sources. Dust storms can also be triggered and exacerbated by climate change, drought, land degradation and un-sustainable management of land and water resources.
Significant pasture degradation and water shortages have been reported in parts of Somalia due to dry weather and high evaporation rates (FSNAU 18/03/2016). In total, one million people are estimated to be affected by the drought (DRC 11/03/2016). The most affected areas are the northern regions of Puntland and Somaliland Hiraan and Gedo regions in South central Somalia.In northern regions, two consecutive below-average rain seasons (July–September andOctober–December) have severely affected pasture and water conditions, and the current dry season (January–March) is worsening the situation.
Below-normal rain fall and drought conditions are leading to large-scale food insecurity, abnormal out migration of livestock, rising water prices, and a sharp increase in debt levels among poor households. Farmers and herders are the most affected (OCHA 09/03/2016). Some relief is expected with the 2016 rainy season in April, which is forecasted to be average
Political impact and implications: Initial analysis suggests that governments’ poor management of the Ebola crisis has generated frustrations and exposed citizens’ lack of trust in their governments. The Ebola crisis is likely to play a very political role in the next election in Sierra Leone and there are predictions that the opposition will win as a result. Economic impact and implications: The economic impact of the Ebola crisis includes loss of gross domestic output, threat to food security, fall in employment and livelihoods, and decline in foreign investment. Growth has slowed in Sierra Leone and is likely to fall even further. Household income has fallen, financial reserves are being used up and large numbers of people are now food insecure. Some businesses are benefiting from the local procurement by the international Ebola response.
Social impact and implications: Progress in human development is likely to be reversed due to the impact of the Ebola crisis on health,