Using the principles of reputational case selection sampling procedure and thematic search of electronic databases and websites, we implemented a regional synthesis of evidence on the health vulnerabilities of migrant and mobile populations in urban areas of East and Southern Africa. The review identified key health challenges relating to various diseases, including the increasing challenge of non-communicable diseases, such diabetes among migrants by 2030.

While figures are difficult to obtain, our review suggested high levels of urban migrants, including refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and asylum seekers in urban areas of the region, which for undocumented migrants poses particular logistics challenges in terms of administering targeted interventions, more so in contexts where poor socio-economic situations of countries do not provide them with opportunities to become self-reliant and less dependent on humanitarian assistance. This calls for policies, program interventions and research investments targeting vulnerable migrant and mobile groups in the region.