This thesis drew upon ethnographic methods to ‘zoom in’ on the diverse and changing roles of women in artisanal mining. Over a 15-month period, the research was carried out at four mining sites: two in South Kivu (Kamituga and Nyabibwe) and two in northern Katanga (Manono and Kisengo). This work recognises and unravels the complexities of women’s lives in artisanal mining. Broadly, the study focused on addressing the following questions: How do women living and working at these mining sites make their living? What barriers and opportunities do they find? How are the current mining reforms affecting these
barriers and opportunities? Why do some women do better than others, and what does this mean for the power relations among women?