This SSHAP Practical Approaches brief provides guidance on undertaking rapid anthropological assessments in the context of an epidemic. During an epidemic, rapid anthropological assessments are used to collect data with and from affected populations and public health officials to (a) understand key social, cultural, political, and economic dynamics; (b) identify relevant authorities and trusted leaders for message dissemination; (c) gather communities’ understanding of the disease and health decision-making processes; and (d) inform appropriate and effective response efforts.