This thesis contributes to the debate on climate change, environment, and migration by scrutinizing conceptual and methodological deficiencies and adopting a migration research perspective. The author uses a multi-sited ethnography in Mali and Senegal to show how human activites shape vegetation, degradation and production on agricultural land. Migration patterns tend to follow long-established networks, with movement patterns circular rather than one-way. The author concludes that the characteristics and perpetuation of people’s translocality, circular migration, and resource flows are determined by intensely interdepending dimensions of necessity, maintaining common identity, and development.