Ebola Virus Disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was declared a public health emergency of international concern on July 17, 2019. The first case to cross the border into Uganda in June 2019 demonstrates the importance of better understanding border dynamics in a context of Ebola. This paper adopts a political economy approach to contextualize epidemic response programs conducted in moderate- and high-risk border districts in Uganda, through a qualitative study with 287 participants. To that end, our aim was to describe the historical underpinnings of the borderlands context; the role of livelihood strategies in constraining risk avoidance decisions; and the dynamics of trust in authority figures, including health workers.