This analysis identifies and discusses the COVID-19 vulnerability factors in South Sudan, including the country’s reliance on humanitarian assistance and imports, economic reliance on oil, weak healthcare system, population density, informal settlements, natural disasters, poverty and illiteracy, and a fragile and untransparent state with limited capacity for response.

To counter these vulnerabilities, the paper also makes a set of recommendations including leveraging bilateral and multilateral humanitarian support; mass testing, border monitoring, case tracking, production and distribution of face masks, repurposing facilities as temporary COVID-19 care centers, improving security and revitalising peace agreements, restoring stability and improving accountable governance, diversifying the economy, and using oil revenue to provide basic services in health, education, security, and infrastructure.