This policy brief discusses how the recently proposed environmental and social audit of the petroleum companies’ operations by the Ministry of Petroleum can be conducted to generate scientific evidence that can assist in finding a permanent solution to pollution in South Sudan’s petroleum producing areas. The author argues that the proposed audit should: determine the extent of environmental and social damage, quantify the costs of remediation and rehabilitation, and assess the petroleum companies’ compliance with standards. The audit process should be independent, transparent, inclusive and participatory, with the firm chosen to conduct the audit procured through an international competitive bidding to ensure the results are credible and acceptable to all stakeholders.