Intorductory article to edition of International Peacekeeping which explores HIV/AIDS in post-conflict societies in Africa. It assesses the key aspects of these societies that contribute towards the spread and impact of the epidemic, such as poorly functioning national health systems, marginalisation of vulnerable mobile populations, and rigidified gender norms.

It also explores practical approaches to addressing these and other challenges, and innovative means of responding to HIV/AIDS during the periods of opportunity that post-conflict settings provide.