The current public health situation analysis (PHSA) concerns the population living within the Gaza Strip and affected by the acute emergency resulting from large-scale military operations by Israel and Hamas. The start date of the current acute emergency is 7 October 2023. The crisis combines multiple typologies, including armed conflict, forced displacement and, depending on the evolution of humanitarian assistance, slow-onset food insecurity. The near-complete blockade of humanitarian and other supply chains, combined with large numbers of injury casualties including among frontline health workers, are resulting in severe disruptions to the health system and the virtual collapse of several facilities and health service components.